Archives For Paganism

[The Wild Hunt welcomes Nathan Hall as today’s guest journalist . He makes his home in South Florida where he works for a local media company and lives with his wife and soon-to-be first child. He grew up without any real religious background but always felt connected with the spirits of the land. Because of this connection he has always felt a strong kinship with environmental causes and the primacy of nature over humanity’s exploitation of it. Nathan has followed many paths, including ceremonial magick, Norse and Druidic traditions. Recently, he has come into alignment with the Temple of Witchcraft tradition where he is a student in the Mystery School. You can find more of his writing at The Arrival and the Reunion.]

MIAMI, Fla. — “I have a message for anyone who would listen to it, from the spirit of our lady, Florida,” Dayan Martinez begins his presentation, addressing the dire situation of the Everglades. He was a guest presenter, among a handful of speakers, at the Love the Everglades Summer Symposium 2016 held August 6 at Miami’s Miccosukee Resort and Convention Center. Other presenters, representing First Nations, faith groups, local communities, and NGOs, participated as well.

[Photo Credit: Chris Foster / Flickr]

Florida Everglades [Photo Credit: Chris Foster / Flickr]

Martinez recalled reaching out during his shamanic journey work when he first made contact with Her – Our Lady Florida.  Martinez had been struggling with his own sense of powerlessness in the face of decades of over-development and environmental upheaval in Florida.

“Goddess is just a word that I use because everyone seems to get the idea that there is a spirit. But she’s enormous in a way, the entire state, from bedrock to clouds,” he said. Since meeting who he refers to as both La Florida and Our Lady Florida, his life has become more focused, with a new sense of purpose.

This is what compelled Martinez to take part in the summer symposium, as not just an activist, but also as a public Pagan. He was joined by friend and fellow community member, Mathew Sydney.

“I believe it was Dayan who in one of these journeys asked:  ‘What can we do for you?’ Her response was, ‘I don’t want candles and offerings of incense and trinkets, I want you to go out there and speak for the environment and take care of the waters,’” Sydney said.

On June 29, Florida governor Rick Scott declared a state of emergency in Martin and St. Lucie counties because of the volume of blue-green algae that had clogged the St. Lucie river and adjoining canal systems and estuaries. The order did little to address the immediate problem, however, mostly just providing additional funds to test water and providing vague instructions to store water in other parts of the Everglades.

The Everglades is a one of a kind ecosystem on the planet, with water slowly moving south toward Florida Bay at a near-glacial pace. Also called the River of Grass, it historically extends from the Kissimmee River basin, just south of Orlando, down through Lake Okeechobee, continuing through the current Everglades National Park and Big Cypress National Preserve out into the Bay, which is hugged by the Florida Keys.

During the push for agricultural land in the 19th century and a development boom that was facilitated by baron-capitalists of the early 20th century, draining the Everglades became an obsession for land owners, sugar and citrus interests, keen on making money off the Sunshine State. After two nasty hurricanes in the 1920’s lead to massive flooding from Lake Okeechobee, the opportunity was seized upon and the federal government stepped in, ordering the Army Corps of Engineers to construct a dike along the southern edge of the lake.

From that point on, the historic flow of the Everglades has been cut off. Canals jut out to the east and west from the lake, and when the water level gets too high, instead of flowing south as it has for countless millennia, it is routed out to the ocean.

This has lead to an ongoing environmental disaster that has been reportedly exacerbated by mismanagement, poor infrastructure, and climate change. It has now culminated in large swaths of blue-green algae overcoming valuable estuaries, smothering wildlife, and sickening residents. According to researchers, restoring the historic flow of the Everglades is the best solution to this problem.

Matthew Sydney and Dayan Martinez [Courtesy Photo]

Matthew Sydney and Dayan Martinez en route to symposium [Courtesy Photo]

Both Sydney and Martinez came away from the symposium feeling like it was a great first step, but with the realization that there was a lot more work to do. Sydney said, “The speech was very well received, I think that bringing like-minded people together is more important now.” He especially felt that there was a need for more Pagan-identifying folks to be present, saying that he’d love to see an entire panel featuring earth-centered religions as part of future secular environmental gatherings.

“In my evolution I have come to feel that those of us who identify as Pagan or Neopagan, or who practice earth-based faiths, we of all people have to stand up and lead the way to speak on behalf of the manatee, the bear, the dolphin, and the honeybees and all the other creatures who are being impacted,” Sydney said.

In an effort to lay the groundwork for more Pagan-centered activism, the two men have started a new environmental organization called the Pagan Environmental Alliance. The nascent group has already held their first protest, with a uniquely Pagan twist.

“Ritual can be a protest, ritual can be a political statement. So when we gather (in downtown West Palm Beach), we will be making our political-activist point by being ourselves in a spiritual manner. Hopefully that will inspire further types of ritual protest,” Martinez said.

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[Courtesy Photo]

Their first event was a small showing, but they were happy with the outcome. They used Doreen Valiente’s Witches Creed for its ritual structure and theme of stepping out from the shadows and saying what Witches are. They also poured fresh rainwater into the intracoastal waterway between West Palm Beach and the island of Palm Beach and asked that there be an awakening within the Pagan community.

But public ritual and educational symposiums aren’t the only facet of their efforts.

“Another part of what we’re doing, another strategy is guerrilla magick. We’re developing strategies whereby quietly, undercover and surreptitiously we can perform magickal acts. The purpose of which is to restore mankind’s balance with nature,” Sydney said. He said that they’ve already begun covertly utilizing sigil magick in public places.

But, Sydney added that there’s still a good bit of work that needs to be accomplished well within the public’s view. While many Pagans have gotten their start as solitaries and continue their practice alone, he said, “I think that it’s time that (we) put aside all that solitary, private practice and actually become leaders in the community.”

Restoring the natural flow of water in the Everglades system is the goal that Martinez and Sydney have been compelled to do by La Florida, but it won’t come easy. After the economic crisis and subprime mortgage meltdown, which happened between 2008 through 2010, ownership of property in South Florida has moved out of normal, working people’s hands. As home values plummeted, banks, hedge funds, and shady development corporations moved in, consolidating land ownership right into the hands of the people who created the crisis.

These financial juggernauts, as well as Big Sugar, who has actively fought Everglades restoration and contributes to the campaigns of governor Rick Scott and former senator Marco Rubio, are the opponents that Martinez and Sydney will be facing.

Despite the odds against them, the two activists both see a moral imperative to the work that the are doing. “I don’t think that we can continue to call ourselves Pagan and ignore the fact that nature is calling, you know? Nature is asking us to do something for her after she has given us food, shelter, wealth, power and faith. It’s time to give back,” Martinez said.

Sydney feels that Pagans should take a note from those who practice Santeria and indigenous faiths and begin incorporating the idea of reciprocity. “If we want the gods or the spirits or the ancestors to help us with our problems, the mature thing is to have the courage to ask them how we can help them.”

Just this week, Martinez announced on social media that he and Sydney have been asked to be presenters at the fall Florida Pagan Gathering. “We are excited to present on … November 5th,” Sydney said, “Our Lady Florida is ready for us to awaken.”  Martinez also stated that he hopes to take the same workshop around the state in the near future.

Dayan Martinez presentation at the Everglades Summer Symposium 2016

 

BUTLER, Mo. – The Sacred Well Congregation (SWC),  a universalist, independent, non-evangelical Wiccan Church, announced it ise an Ecclesiastical Endorsing Organization (EEO) for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This designation means they are now able to endorse qualified clergy from Wicca and Earth-Centered Spiritualities who wish to apply for chaplaincy positions with the VA. This marks the first time that any Pagan group has been approved as an Ecclesiastical Endorsing Organization for the VA.

In a message on its official Facebook page, SWC said, “This is a tremendous breakthrough, and will enhance our standing with professional chaplains organizations such as COMISS [The Network on Ministry in Specialized Settings, formerly known as the Coalition on Ministry in Specialized Settings] and [Association of Professional Chaplains], as well as strengthen our position as we move forward in our endeavors to secure status as an EEO for military chaplains.”

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Rev. David L. Oringderff, Executive Director of Sacred Well Congregation, said that due to his military background, most of his work and advocacy for religious freedom has been with the DoD and VA. He explained, “I represented Earth-Centered Spiritualities at the US Air Force Academy conferences on Religious Respect in 2010 and 2012, and was a keynote at the dedication of the USAFA Falcon Circle Cadet Chapel on 3 May 2011.”

Rev. Oringderff has been working toward the goal of a Pagan Military Chaplain since 1997.  “For a non-mainstream organization to gain access to the inner circles, it takes a lot of work.” He added that his efforts are far from done, but securing EEO status within the VA is major milestone.

The Difference between Ecclesiastical Endorsing Organization and a Pagan Military Chaplain

Every department and bureau in the federal government that has professional chaplains has its own EEO system and approval process. Most of those processes are modeled on the DoD system. However,  just because an organization is granted EEO by one federal agency, does not mean they are granted it by any other agency.

At the federal level, the EEO must be a religious organization that holds a Letter of Determination from the IRS recognizing it as a 501(c)3 Section 170b1Ai Church or Association of Churches. Even though all churches are tax exempt, this determination letter is something a religious organization needs in order to apply for EEO status, which would allow them to endorse chaplains to serve with federal agencies and departments.

Rev. Dr. David Oringderff speaks with Lt. Gen. Mike Gould during a dedication ceremony for the Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel Falcon Circle May 3, 2011. Oringderff is the executive director of the Sacred Well Congregation and represented the Earth-Centered Spirituality community during a religious respect conference at the Academy in November 2010. Gould is the Academy superintendent. (U.S. Air Force photo/Mike Kaplan)

Rev. Oringderff speaks with Lt. Gen. Gould during a dedication ceremony for the Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel Falcon Circle May 3, 2011. [Photo Credit: U.S. Air Force photo/Mike Kaplan]

A chaplain is different than an ordained minister of a particular faith, denomination or sect. Chaplains must be capable of and agree to provide spiritual care for every person under their supervision. Currently there are no military or VA chaplains who carry an endorsement from a Wiccan, Pagan or Earth-Centered spiritual organization.

The Sacred Well Congregation has been endorsing chaplains for hospitals, first-responders, and correctional institutions, and Lay-Leaders for military groups for several years.  They are now formally approved to endorse chaplains for the Department of Veterans Affairs, but they have not yet received that status for military forces.

However, Sacred Well’s new EEO status means that the way is open for a Pagan chaplain to be hired by the VA and for that chaplain to begin ministering to veterans while they are patients in VA hospitals or using other VA services.

Rev. Oringderff estimates it will be still be three to four years before we see a Pagan military chaplain — someone who ministers to active cuty and reserve military members, as well as their dependents living on military bases while deployed.

The First VA Pagan chaplain?

Now that the VA has approved SWC to be an endorsing agency, this opens the door to the VA hiring a Pagan chaplain. And, Rev. (David) Oliver Kling may be the VA’s first Pagan Chaplain hire.

Rev. Kling’s background describes his religion as a syncretistic path that combines Wiccan, Druid, and Gnostic strands of Christianity. He graduated from Wright State University with a degree in Philosophy and another in Religious Studies. His graduate work is in Black Church and African Diaspora Studies and he has completed four units of Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) at St. Mary’s Medical Center in Huntington, WV.

Currently, Rev. Kling is a  professional hospice chaplain in Northeast Ohio.  Like Rev. Oringderff, he has a military background. “I’m a veteran of the US Navy and a Gulf War veteran so working with veterans would be an honor for me,” said Rev. Kling.

David Oliver Kling

David Oliver Kling

Rev. King is on the SWC Board of Deacons, chair of the Ministry, Advocacy, and Leadership Department at Cherry Hill Seminary, and was rated “fully qualified” for a VA chaplaincy position vacancy.

The process for gaining employment with the VA is difficult and highly competitive.  Rev. Kling said that he has applied at over 10 different VA hospitals for employment.  Each application is  vetted to ensure the candidate is qualified and points are assigned to this process.

“All of my applications were rejected but one. The rejections were vague and unclear, ‘Missing documentation,’ etc. Oddly, all the applications were the same. One was sufficiently vetted and I was awarded a score. Now that Sacred Well Congregation is a recognized VA endorser it will make this process easier since we are now on the list.”

VA chaplain positions traditionally go to retired military chaplains as their applications are awarded more points, but Re. Kling says he will continue to apply to available openings.

Rev. Kling added that having Sacred Well Congregation on the list of endorsers is a huge milestone for him as a professional chaplain.  “Now, no matter where I choose to seek employment as a chaplain I can point to that endorser list when anyone looks at my resume and says, ‘I’ve never heard of Sacred Well Congregation.’  I can direct them to the VA endorser list.  That list has weight.”

Kling also said that when he goes for board certification as a chaplain to any of the certification organizations having SWC on that list makes the process easier because the VA has already vetted SWC as an organization.

Rev. Kling hopes the Pagan community understands how important SWC being on the EEO list is for other Pagans who wish to be chaplains. “It is not just about the VA. It opens doors in other avenues because it lets other would be employers know that Sacred Well Congregation has been vetted by the VA as an ecclesiastical organization. In my application process it wasn’t just me that was being vetted, it was also Sacred Well Congregation.”

 

1930212_1044474605610182_2135655129642865778_nDENTON, Tex.– Eight months after a fire damaged its building, Denton Unitarian Universalist Fellowship came together in a newly constructed space to celebrate and recommit to its mission. As we reported in December, the Denton church was repeatedly vandalized by a single teenager, who eventually set fire to the building. At the time, Rev. Pam Wat said, “The damage from the fire is significant, but not overwhelming.”

Since that point, members were invited to hold their services in the First Christian Church, located across the street. As noted by Denton CUUPS chapter coordinator John Beckett, “They displayed the best of Christianity.” Specifically, the CUUPS group was able to hold regular Sunday meetings at the facility as well as seasonal events, including its “Imbolc, Ostara, Summer Solstice, and Lughnasadh circles.”

Meanwhile, the damaged building was being rebuilt. Construction was completed just in time for the annual “Ingathering Service” that the church uses to “kick off its year.” Beckett was an integral part of Saturday’s event, helping to “compose two of the liturgical elements” for the service, as well as delivering a “colloquy as the Act of Reconsecration” together with Rev. Wat. Beckett, who wrote in a blog post, “It was a perfect example of collaborative ritual, and of how a UU service can be truly multi-faith without being bland and soulless.” The colloquy is posted in full on his blog.

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cuupsSALEM, Mass. — In other CUUPS news, this weekend marks the start of Convocation, the organization’s annual gathering. This year’s conference event, themed “Awakening Our Tribe,” will be held at the First Church in Salem, Massachusetts. CUUPS organizers have scheduled three full days of workshops, rituals, lectures, and entertainment, inviting people to join them “for this special gathering as we return to the roots for inspiration.” The current schedule and guest speaker list is posted on their website.

Additionally, with the event being held in the “Witch City,” organizers have built time into the plans for attendees to get out and stroll the streets or take self-guided historical tours. Rev. JK Hildebrand will speak on the subject. “Why are there so many of us [in Salem]? When and how did it all come to be? What have been some of the lessons of religion vs. commercialism? How does CUUPS fit in?” There will also be a discussion and viewing of the documentary With Love, from Salem, which focuses on the practice of modern Witchcraft in the historic city.

Convocation runs from Aug 26-28.

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The Asatru Folk Assembly (AFA) is stirring up controversy on social media after newly-selected Alsherjargothi Matt Flavel posted a short statement on AFA’s Facebook page. Sunday night, Flavel wrote:

“Today we are bombarded with confusion and messages contrary to the values of our ancestors and our folk. The AFA would like to make it clear that we believe gender is not a social construct, it is a beautiful gift from the holy powers and from our ancestors. The AFA celebrates our feminine ladies, our masculine gentlemen and, above all, our beautiful white children. The children of the folk are our shining future and the legacy of all those men and women of our people back to the beginning.”

While the post has generated some visible support for the organization and its new leadership, there has been a growing wave of protest and, simultaneously, calls to publicly denounce the AFA. One Facebook user asked for clarification, “Am I misunderstanding the message here or does this mean that if someone wasn’t white or if they were queer they wouldn’t be welcome in the AFA?” Flavel responded in part, with “You are not misunderstanding.”

No official reactions have come out yet from other Heathen or Pagan groups, or individuals, by the time of publication; nor has the AFA made any further comment. We will continue to follow this story and report as needed.

In other news

  • As noted in late July, the court case for musician Kenny Klein was due to start on Aug. 15. However, it has once again been delayed. According to the latest report, defense attorneys have hired a professional to analyze Klein’s computers and provide a report. They are also asking for copies of the photographs. However, prosecutors will only allow them to see the originals, rather than provide them with copies. With all the various motions on the table, the trial date has been pushed back to Sept. 29.
  • Hellenion, a US-based religious organization “dedicated to the revival and practice of Hellenic polytheism,” has opened a new ritual group, or “Proto-Demos” located in Southeast Michigan. The new group, called the Apple Blossom Proto-Demos of Hellenion, was formed in late spring and held its first ritual July 16 at the Pagan Pathways Temple in Madison Heights. Apple Blossom joins eleven other such Hellenion groups located around the US.
  • A new metaphysical store is coming to Oregon. The Sacred Well, located in the Bay Area, announced that it will be opening a second location in Portland this October. The Sacred Well employs and serves Pagan, polytheist, and Witchcraft practitioners with readings, ritual supplies, temple events, and classes. The new store will open at 7927 SE 13th Ave in the Sellwood neighborhood. To follow their progress, go to the Sacred Well Portland Facebook page.
  • Don’t forget it is Pagan Pride season. Denver Pagan Pride kicks off its local festivities on Saturday as do many others around the country. Pride events associated with the Pagan Pride project are listed on its website.
  • Everglades Moon Local Council (EMLC), the Florida-based affiliate of Covenant of the Goddess, released its 24th seasonal podcast. The 2016 Lughnasad edition contains music by Emerald RoseGinger Doss, and Mama Gina. Members discuss everything from tarot tips and Nervine Tea to “getting inebriated at festivals.” The regular seasonal podcast can be found on iTunes, Stitcher, Libsyn, or on the EMLC website.

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CORRECTION (8/24/2016 12:50 pm): The original article stated that an online exchange between a user and AFA leaders had been deleted. At the time of original publication, that short exchange was not publicly visible and assumed to have been deleted. However, it has since reappeared and is publicly accessible on the organization’s Facebook site.

TWH – Muggle. Ravenclaw. Azkaban. These are familiar words to the millions of Harry Potter fans around the world. With more than 450 million books in print in over 200 countries, the Harry Potter franchise, including films and other marketing tie-ins, make it one of the most successful in history. This success has not subsided, as shown by the recent buzz surrounding the London opening of the play Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, which is set 19 years after the seventh book, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. The play premiered July 30 and a print version of the story was released July 31, a date that also marks both J.K. Rowling’s and Harry Potter’s birthdays.

2180px-Harry_Potter_wordmark.svgOver the past 19 years, the Harry Potter stories and their expansive pop culture mythos have drawn a significant amount of attention to the possibility of world filled with magic. Rowling asks, “What if…” and proceeds to answer the question with the Harry Potter world.

Due to the magnitude of the franchise’s influence, a natural intersection has formed between its fantasy exhibition of magic and the reality of modern Witchcraft practice. This cultural intersection, which does in fact exist with other pop culture witch products, is sometimes an amusement for real practitioners, many of whom are loyal Potter fans. But, in other cases, the intersection is ignored or shrugged off as silly.  In other cases still, this cultural intersection between real magic and fantasy play can cause a real-life problem.

That is just what happened recently to small business owners and eclectic spiritualists Richard Carter and Jackie Restall. In April, Restall opened Mystical Moments, a metaphysical shop located on Britannia Road in Slaithwaite, England. She and Carter had been previously traveling around selling their craft works, crystals, and other items at local Pagan festivals and events. The store was the next step, and they used much of their remaining life savings to make it happen.

In an interview, Carter told The Wild Hunt, “Although we are a business, one of our main aims is to sell spiritual goods at a price that people can afford.” The couple sees their work as a service to other magical and spiritual workers. Mystical Moments offers healing services, as well as selling items such as “incense, crystals, sage, Angels, Buddhas, [their] own handmade ringed love goblets, runes, and wands.”

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Richard Carter [Courtesy Photo]

While Restall focuses on crystal work and healing, Carter makes the wands, which he considers “a spiritual calling.” He said, “I received an urge to craft wood […] I still can’t explain it, having never had worked with wood in my life.” In 2012, Restall gave Carter a lathe, after he had suffered a heart attack and was unable to return to work.

Carter went on to say, “The first time I used [the lathe] it was like I was being guided on how to use the chisels and how the wands turn out.” Four year later, wand making is now his passion. He said, “I make wands from oak, yew, mahogany, cherry, walnut, sycamore, sweet chestnut, and sometimes a combination of woods.”

In July, the new store’s presence attracted the attention of local reporter Chloe Glover, who writes for The Huddersfield Daily Examiner. After meeting with Restall and Carter, she wrote an article titled “From Slytherin to Slaithwaite – magic wand shop opens in the village,”  which was was not-so-coincidentally published July 30 – the opening day of Harry Potter and the Cursed Child.

While Glover’s article does provide an objective overview of the store itself, she focused predominantly on Carter’s wand making and injects language from the Potter world. Glover wrote, “Richard Carter may sound like a character out of a Harry Potter book, but his curious real-life skill is gaining nationwide fans amongst those with a spiritualist leaning.”

Despite the article’s level tone, it became the catalyst for a controversy of the magical kind. Carter explained, “The day after [Glover’s] article appeared I received a call from a freelance journalist asking if he could also do a piece on the wands. During the conversation it became apparent that he was interested in Harry Potter.”

Wands in Olivander's at the Wizarding World of Harry Potter [Pixabay]

Wands in Olivander’s at the Wizarding World of Harry Potter [Public Domain]

During that second interview, Carter said that the journalist asked him if he “would sell one of [his] wands to a Harry Potter fan.” It was Carter’s quoted response that captured international attention: “If I had someone come in wanting a wand just because they liked Harry Potter I would not sell them one, no matter how much they were offering.”

On Aug. 6, the Sunday Express published that quote along with a short article titled, “Real-life wandmaker bans Harry Potter fans from his shop.” Within 48 hours, both British and international media had picked up on this click-bait story:

Man who runs magic wand shop in Huddersfield BANS Harry Potter fans for not taking magic seriously” – The Sun
Harry Potter fans banned from wand shop for not being real wizards” – The Independent
Witchcraft shop refuses to serve Harry Potter fans because it sells ‘spiritual tools’ not toys for young Muggles” – The Telegraph
Expelliarmus! British Wand Shop Bans ‘Harry Potter’ Fans“- The Hollywood Reporter
UK wand-maker bans Harry Potter fans from ‘real magic shop’ ” – The Indian Express
Magic Shop bans Harry Potter fans” – New Zealand Herald

Without fail, each of these articles reports that Carter stated that he would not sell a wand to a Harry Potter fan. They also report that Carter can tell fans from a real magical practitioners by their auras.

However, according to Carter, much of what is being reported is inaccurate. He said, “We have never banned anyone from our shop.” In fact, Restall herself is a Harry Potter fan. The aura comment was in reference to helping customers choose the proper wood for their wands.

So what did Carter really say and mean? Both Carter and Restall “believe [their] wands are spiritual tools and not toys for Harry Potter fans to play with.” In other words, their wands are not intended to be used for cosplay, Halloween parties, or other types of pretend play. Carter’s wands are real.

He explained, “The point that I tried to make, but was misunderstood or more like misquoted, was that the wands, which I am guided to make, are for other like-minded people to partner with.” He added that they are made “to help [practitioners] with spells, to use during an healing, or to sit with in meditation. They are not toys.”

Carter believes that if Harry Potter fans want a play wand, they should “look on eBay and buy a mass produced toy, not something that has been made as a spiritual tool.”

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Mystical Moments hand-crafted wands [Courtesy Photo]

American wand maker Gypsey Teague agrees with Carter to some extent. Her wands, like Carter’s, are handmade as spiritual tools, and are not toys. In fact, Teague won’t even sell them over the internet for that very reason. She said, “No one should buy a wand over the internet. You have to match your energy to the wand.”

She added that other craft people, and even buyers, are shocked and put off by her policy. She said, “Other sellers have said, ‘How dare you not sell over the internet?’ I respond, ‘How dare you sell over the internet, as if they are toys?'”

Like Carter, Teague places a emphasis on the importance of the wood matching the user’s energy and magical needs, and, she would know. Along with being a Georgian elder, Teague has a master’s degree in landscape architecture and has been worked with hundreds of species of wood for over 35 years. She sells her wands at events and said that, in some cases, people take hours looking for the right wand match. In other cases, a customer can walk clear across a crowded field or vendor room and pick the right wand in seconds.

Teague added, “J.K. Rowling got a few things right,” one of which is the concept that the wand picks the witch. Like Restall, she is a Harry Potter fan. In fact, in her book The Witch’s Guide to Wands, Teague included a short chapter called, “The Wands of J.K. Rowling.” It begins, “Yes, I know. J.K. Rowling probably doesn’t have wands. However, her most famous protagonist does, and so do his friends and enemies.”

In the subsequent six pages, Teague analyzes the woods described as being used by several of the Potter characters, including Harry Potter, Ron Weasley, Hermione Granger, Rubeus Hagrid and more. “It is not surprising that the holly was the wand of choice for Harry Potter. Harry embodies all that is good and strong in the magical world,” she wrote.

When asked if she would sell a wand to a Potter fan, Teague said, “Yes, as long as it is in person.” Unlike Carter, she doesn’t mind if they want to own a real magical wand. However, she did note that her wands don’t look like the movie wands, and most fans want replicas, which are typically mass-produced toys.

As far as she knows, she has never had anyone buy a wand specifically because they were a Potter fan. With that said, she has undoubtedly sold to Potter fans, because many real Witches and Pagans, like herself, are in fact also fans.

Wand make Gypsey Teague [Courtesy Photo]

Wand maker Gypsey Teague [Courtesy Photo]

Carter agrees with Teague. He was quoted as saying that “J.K. Rowling has obviously done her research” with respect to wands and woods. And he himself has enjoyed the movies.

Fortunately for Carter and the store, there has been no direct backlash. Most of the negative commentary has been contained within internet-based public comment areas. In the Telegraph articlefantasy author GP Taylor was quoted as saying, “I think this is terrible. Harry Potter fans should be served. They are going crazy over the Cursed Child and need their wands. It is discrimination against Potter fans. They should go to court for justice.” Several Twitter users called for a protest outside of the store, but nothing ever manifested.

Carter said, “We have had Bento magazine in Germany, Marie Claire magazine, Dublin radio and the BBC contact us but at least that gave me the opportunity to put the facts across on what I had actually said.” Journalist Chloe Glover, whose local article about the store started the media frenzy, also did a follow-up article that shares Carter’s reaction.

But it didn’t end there. On July 14, the entire fiasco caught the attention of J.K. Rowling. She tweeted:

Her tweet launched another round of international articles about Carter and his wand making:

Harry Potter author JK Rowling defends fans ‘banned’ from wand shop – ABC Online
Spells trouble: JK Rowling joins row over Harry Potter fans’ right to ‘real wands’ – The Guardian
J.K. Rowling responds to store owner’s ban on Harry Potter fans – New York Daily News

On Twitter itself, Rowling’s comment garnered many responses, many of which supported her words and ridiculed the controversy or Carter himself. However, other tweets came in from Pagans, looking to correct her seemingly irreverent statement.

“Really? Mocking a man over his religion, and not selling his religions tools to just anyone?” – @Acadia Jules

“They’re hand-crafted religious objects. They deserve to be treated with respect.” – @Laina

“He’s selling to Wiccans, a proper religion. It’s like someone taking a cross from a church to go hunt vampires.” – @MystBornWoW

When asked if he had responded to Rowling’s statement, Carter said, “No […] mainly because I am not on Twitter and a bit of a technophobe.” He went on to say that if he was to respond it would be to say simply: ‘Each to their own, but like us try not to be judgmental of other people.’

Carter will continue making his wands and selling them in the new store, letting his customers choose their woods as guided by their own energy. At this time, Mystical Moments does not have a website or online presence with the exception of its Facebook fan page. Carter added, “We would like to thank all the people globally who have shown their support and respected our right to keep our tools sacred.”

In my column last month,  we looked at the idea of challenging the narrative, and how this both supports and provokes community. Within this reflection, we were able to look at three different areas in which Pagans were challenging expectations within our own interconnected Pagan and Polytheistic communities. There are many ways that individuals, groups, and subsets are challenging what has become the operation of the over-culture within our community. The inevitable response to constructed boundaries within any segment of society becomes the pushing of barriers.

owl-1240961_1920Marginalization and outsider politics happen within every community. Considering the impact of such dynamics can be difficult and are often based in perspective. Conversations will yield different responses from those who are connected more to a common narrative, than those who exist within the margins of the margin. As it is within most segments of society, acceptable narratives are more openly discussed and have a way of drowning out those that are not. Challenging the narrative often means identifying and amplifying the voices that are often underrepresented or too often lost in the repetitive nature of the over-culture.

What happens when people actively push against the narrative of any community? Does the common story, language, history, symbolism, and practices of the mainstream serve as a means to marginalize those who do not fit within the prescribed narrative?

While subsets of our community continue to work to define modern Paganism or Polytheism, other subsets actively push against this notion. And some just do not fit within the sometimes narrow walls of any of the common narratives at the table.

In exploring the many different areas of these typical narratives, the over-culture, marginalization and the boundaries of conformity, I reached back into the pool of voices for four different perspectives. Coming from different places within the spectrum of our Pagan and Polytheistic community, I spoke with Tamilia ReedKarina BlackHeart, Laura Tempest Zakroff, and Langston Kahn. People from different locations, spaces, paths, cultural histories, and trainings; all a part of our evolving communities’ narrative story.

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Karina BlackHeart is a longtime teacher, mentor and practitioner. Her book, A Witch’s Book of Silence, was recently published in 2015 and focuses on many aspects of power, wisdom, love and self.

Crystal Blanton: How do you feel that writing about silence challenges the narrative of our current community?”

Karina BlackHeart: I hope it encourages people to stop and think before speaking. One of the downfalls of social media is that it engenders a kind of impulsive immediacy in response to information coming in. So, when we are challenged by opinions, practices, theologies or world views which differ from our own, the instinct is to respond defensively. And, because we are using platforms which effectively erase the words we read — losing them in a sea of other posts — that compulsion to react as soon as thought arises is a strong one!

Perhaps, a more mature or self-possessed response might be to sit with the “offending” information and engage is some self inquiry. As in, “Why is this making me so angry? Why do I feel defensive about this? Does this practice or theology invalidate my own? Why, exactly, do I feel the need to defend myself or blame and shame others?”

This line of questioning requires self-reflection. It takes time. It puts us face to face with our own stuff — insecurity, doubt, persecution complexes and ego attachments. It’s uncomfortable and, in the over-culture (of which we are a part, by the way) very unusual. Taking a step back, sitting with ourselves and entering silence allows us the opportunity to question ourselves rather than attack the Other. In doing so, we may find our beliefs are strengthened. Conversely, we might actually expand our world view.

I hope my work on silence helps explain why it’s so very important for magical people to engage with. But, I also hope it gives people permission to be still and silent when their impulse and the expectations of others demand the opposite.

Karina BlackHeart

Karina BlackHeart [Courtesy Photo]

CB: Do you feel that the common narrative of our community has impacted how you have had to navigate the intersecting dynamics of your family culture and your spiritual culture?

KBH: It’s an interesting question because when I wrote that piece about my lived experience as a white Mom parenting biracial, brown-skinned children, it had nothing to do with Paganism. I didn’t write it thinking, “I need to make a statement to Pagans about why black lives matter.” I wrote it because it felt important to me to respond in the way I could to the denial of racism in the over-culture. Again, we Pagans are a part of that and reflect many more of the values, beliefs and habits of the over-culture than we care to admit.

I needed to speak my Truth, my own lived experience in hopes that maybe even one of the “All Lives Matter” people or those holding on to the racially-biased perception that what POC report as lived experience is false, exaggerated, playing the victim etc.

As to the question of the Pagan culture impacting the way I navigate in those communities as the Mother of biracial kids, Yes. There certainly have been times when I’ve had to say to white Pagans speaking racist ideology, “Hey. My kids are black. You’re talking about my kids.” Most people respond by saying, “I’m not talking about *your* kids, I’m talking about *those* kids.”  Then, I ask how they would tell my kids apart from those kids.

For the most part, though, I keep a pretty low profile with regards to my private life. My kids are my private life. Who I date is private. I was lucky, I think, to be trained in the Craft to question not only how the over-culture indoctrinates us into perpetuating systems of oppression and power-over, but to also question the ways and means Pagan subculture does the same.  As a result, the way I navigate Pagan culture is to continually and purposefully keep a low profile.

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Langston Kahn embodies a myriad of experiences, identities, and training that all push against the boundaries of any standard over-culture. He is a Shamanic practitioner initiated into traditions of the African Diaspora and a Black/Bi-racial man in New York City.

Langston Khan

Langston Kahn [Courtesy Photo]

Crystal Blanton: Common narrative within community often reinforces the boundaries of inclusion or what inevitably becomes excluded. Do you feel that your experience within the larger Pagan and Polytheistic community has been inclusive of your various, intersecting, marginalized identities?

Langston Kahn: It’s so hard to answer this question because of the multiple Paganisms and polytheisms I’ve been a part of over the years along with the multiple marginalized identities I embody– black, biracial, queer. I first came up in neo-Paganism, specifically neo-Wicca. I didn’t find any real mirrors for my blackness there, the cultural influences and depictions of divinities were all overwhelmingly European. At the time however, it didn’t consciously bother me because I was struggling with my own identity issues as someone who was raised in a predominately white community. At that time in my life, Paganism provided a basic framework for engaging with the sacred that was extremely valuable for me, but it also always felt like something was missing.

Eventually I found my way to a traditional Gardnerian coven where I stayed for four years. All my coven mates were white, but my high priest was gay so that part of my identity felt fairly seen and included. It was interesting to talk with my High Priest about how he saw his sexuality at play in the tradition.

During this time I also found my way to MAGPAGAN, a gay men’s Pagan circle in NYC. Again, this space was predominately white but it was an extremely valuable space for learning to begin to lead ritual as anyone could volunteer each month to engage the other members in whatever ritual practice they were interested in. It also lead me to Between the Worlds, a Pagan gathering for those who identify as men who love men in Ohio.

Say it with me now– predominately white (I think there was one other person of color there when I went) but it opened me up to many facets of Paganism I had not yet experienced. Expert ritualists, Druids, extremely skilled Witches, shamanic practitioners, devotional polytheists, etc. I experienced some extremely catalyzing rituals there and I realized there was a way in which queer people / men who loved men connected traditions across the usual boundaries in a really beautiful and important way. For me this felt like seeing the dream of Paganism actualized. A big umbrella where people with many different traditions and perspectives could gather in a way that was respectful of their differences and created something larger than the sum of their parts.

I began to have a series of initiatory experiences with spirits that lead me away from my coven and to begin to study (and join)some indigenous traditions and begin a four year training program in a contemporary shamanic tradition. During this time I also joined a house of devotional polytheists. While this house was also largely white– many people in the house were also intimately involved in African Tradition Religions as well as contemporary shamanisms so they were able to provide much better support for both the identity work I was doing as well as the spiritual experiences I was having.

I found that polytheists emphasized the importance of decolonization as central to the practice far more than the Pagan communities I was a part of. They gave me insight into the type of ancestor work that demanded you do the hard work of bringing all of your many identities to the table and exploring and processing the pain those identities carry with them in our contemporary western culture which was invaluable to me. Suddenly I had frameworks for engaging all of my identities intimately in my spiritual process.

My shamanic tradition was where I finally found the tools I had been looking for to truly work with life as a teacher and begin to understand some of the unique challenges of our time and gain tools to address them. The work was centered around aligning more and more with the helping spirits that walk with us and our authenticity and so the teachings brought me to engage deeper with all of my identities.

CB: How do you feel that your spiritual work pushes the boundaries of the common community narrative?

LK: This question is hard for me as I’m not sure what the boundaries of the common community narrative are. In fact– that might actually be how my work challenges the common community narrative. I am part of a shamanic community that defines community as people coming together with shared skill sets and shared beliefs and principles. We strive to be contemporary people working together in a way that mirrors indigenous community structures. We strive not just to use indigenous technologies, but do the work necessary to transform the contemporary distortions from our culture within ourselves so we can approach the technologies closer to how indigenous / pre-contact peoples do.

So I think what challenges the common community narrative about my work is that I am deeply invested in communities that mirror indigenous communities where the bar is very high. People are expected to do their work or if they aren’t willing to, to leave the community. Additionally, there is an understanding that if someone is manifesting a problem, such as mental illness or physical illness– it is often something that the entire community needs to look at within themselves and how the individuals dynamics mirror the community dynamics.

The more I have experienced the treasure of having this type of community over the last five years, the less I am invested in using the word community to define groups of people that are not willing to cultivate the skills necessary to be in true community together. This might sound a little grouchy, and that’s not how I intend it, but the more I have experienced the gift of actual community (along with all of the headaches and challenges that it brings), the less I want to use the word describe anything less. I think we need to think carefully if we really do want to come together as a community and if so, we might need to acknowledge that collectively we need to learn new skills (for personal emotional work, non violent communication, mediation, leadership by council, etc) to be able to do so effectively rather than projecting the drama that arises or the failures to come together on “a few bad apples” that happen to be in focus because they have risked stepping into leadership.

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Laura Tempest Zakroff is not just a great person, but is also a someone whose work is very inspiring in showing a balance between many different pieces that come together in unique ways. Her bio says that she “can be described by many different labels: artist, author, blogger, dancer, designer, event producer, teacher, witch – to name a few. Coming from a long line of diverging cultures, she is most at ease in blending her skills and inspirations throughout all of her work.”

Laura Tempest Zakroff

Laura Tempest Zakroff [Courtesy Photo]

Crystal Blanton: Your spiritual work within the Pagan community operate outside of the margins of the common Pagan narrative. How do you feel this empowers your work?

Laura Tempest Zakroff: My first response to the question started with “it does?!” Then the list of things started building up quickly, providing the clear evidence on so many levels, so I suppose that really is true! I suppose that speaks to the fact that I’m often not found comparing my path as a Witch to others, which is extremely empowering in itself.  I think that’s one of the most valuable lessons I’ve learned in the last 20 years – that when you trust your gut, ask questions and seek to find your own answers, you can see your own path so much more clearly.  I know what works for me because I have done the experimenting, I have seen the results, and adjusted accordingly. There is a huge amount of freedom that comes with defining   your own path through balancing instinct and intuition, research and revelation – as well as responsibility to yourself and the Divine.

CB: Have you felt restricted by the over-culture of common Pagan narrative and how do you navigate those boundaries within larger community?

LTZ: I can’t say that I’ve felt specifically restricted, but rather have used it as a guide to affirm what I do and don’t want in my practice. As a designer and artist by trade, I’m excited by problem-solving – I’d rather find a solution then get bogged down in the frustration and angst of the problem or specific experience. For example, many years ago, I attended a ritual at a Pagan Pride event that was a huge circle, with only a handful of certain people having any sort of active role in the center, while everyone else had to stand and watch for an hour what they did. It was static, long, and felt disrespectful to everyone else there. If I wanted that kind of ritual, I would have stayed in the Catholic Church! So instead, I focused on making sure that when I held a group ritual, it was a dynamic experience for everyone, that made them feel truly included as active participants to their level of comfort. I am huge supporter of integrating movement into ritual – connecting mind, body, and spirit.

I’m not about to tell anyone that the way they are approaching or doing something is “doing it wrong”, especially if it works for them. Instead, I can ask them about the how and why they do a thing for my own education and understanding. Also, I can talk about what works for me and why – and mutual respect if that works or doesn’t work for you. Nobody can tell you that your experience is wrong, especially when it involves the Gods. If anyone has a place to tell you you’re “doing it wrong”, the Gods do, and they tend to also show you how to do it right.

I will admit to having been nervous in a few situations where I’ve presented material at conventions/festivals that could be considered “out of the box” to the general P-word world. But whether that’s been regarding my take on Sigil Magick, Visual Alchemy, integrating dance and ritual, eclectic workings, the Self Divine, etc – the response has been incredibly positive, well-received, and exceptionally enthusiastic. Which means that it is striking a chord with many people who feel the same way, but maybe didn’t feel comfortable yet in expressing or exploring those concepts.  I often tend to mix in humor with what I do, which always makes it easier for folks to grasp!

Next May, my first book The Witch’s Cauldron will be coming out from Llewellyn as part of their Witch’s Tools series. I’m very excited as well to see how it will be received, as I dig deep into some of the popular cauldron myths and uproot them, as well as I propose some new and unconventional ways to look at and use the cauldron in your personal practice.  It follows my personal guidelines of: critical thinking, creative freedom, and personal responsibility.

Laura Tempest Zakroff

Laura Tempest Zakroff [Courtesy Photo]

CB: How does the over-culture of modern Paganism influence the subcultures that exist within our community? Does it influence you?<

LTZ: I think there’s a fair amount of Judeo-Christian residue that we’re still running into in terms of organization/structure, doctrine, and practice that trickles down. Which is fair – as Paganism (or your favorite P-wordism) is still fairly young in modern culture, and it’s common to look to models that are around you. But we HAVE accomplished a LOT in a short amount of time.

I remember at the Pagan Leaders Summit in 2001 where we discussed issues about establishing temples and churches, helping inmates, getting Pagan symbols on soldiers’ tombstones, etc – and it’s astounding to see what’s happened along those agendas since then, and so much more! Or look to the social awareness and justice issues that are hot and important topics right now – the changes I’ve seen in just the last couple of years has been inspiring – and there’s still more to come! Whether this is a movement from the overall narrative downward, or from the subcultures upward, it’s working.

In the end, no one wants to be told they’re wrong, but everyone wants to be respected – and most people do want to make sure they’re being respectful to others. It’s a matter of spreading and sharing awareness in a way that educates and inspires, instead of excludes or alienates. That mode of thinking has been a very positive and invigorating influence on my work. I appreciate ideas and patterns that challenge me, that make me think and reconsider my own beliefs and actions, adjusting accordingly to make sure I’m being respectful and inclusive. I believe that being flexible, considerate, and fluid are integral to being a Witch.

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Tamilia Reed is an author that brings much more than written word to the community. She currently writes for Patheos Pagan on several different blogs and draws on reconstructed Heathen, Hellenic, and Roman practices.

Crystal Blanton: Common narrative within community often reinforces the boundaries of inclusion or what inevitably becomes excluded. Do you feel that your experience within the larger Pagan and Polytheistic community has been inclusive of your various, intersecting, marginalized identities?

Tamilia Reed: I identify as a Black bisexual woman. In my experience, those identities intersect to form a unique experience that is not well captured by any subset of the three. Within the Pagan community, I believe that there is ample room for any number of identities. Whether or not those identities will be seen, recognized, and understood is a different issue entirely. I find that my identities as a bisexual and a woman have been more readily seen, recognized, and understood by others than my identity as a Black person.

This is not surprising given that race has a long, complicated, bloody, and uncomfortable history that violates many of the love and light principles that glue many brands of Paganism together. Consequently, my blackness is more often addressed as a physical characteristic than a socio-political identity complete with unique lived experiences. Only in the wake of police brutality in the media have more Pagans come forward and expressed their desire to learn more about my lived experiences as a Black person. Even then, the reality of what it means to be Black and a woman and bisexual is grist for the mill of another day.

Within polytheistic and reconstructionist communities, there is greater awareness of concepts like cultural appropriation and depending on the degree to which my Blackness is understood as cultural I am sometimes invited to those conversations but rarely does anyone start a conversation about race in America with me, and definitely not a conversation that engages contemporary expressions of Paganism and its underlying philosophies in connection with US race politics.

Tamilia Reed

Tamilia Reed [Courtesy Photo]

CB: How do you feel that your spiritual work pushes the boundaries of the common community narrative?

TR: In a way, I feel that doing anything while being Black, woman, and bisexual pushes the boundaries of the common community narrative. The common community narrative says that my Black woman bisexual identity is welcome and beautiful, but not necessarily spiritually significant beyond what can be appropriated from the cultures that I am assumed to align with. My spiritual path pushes the boundaries by acknowledging my ancestors of blood and of spirit, by honoring gods at the intersections of my identities, and by pursuing social justice inside and outside of Pagan sacred spaces.

CB: Have you felt restricted by the over-culture of common Pagan narrative and how do you navigate those boundaries within larger community?

TR: Just as I have felt restricted outside of the Pagan community due to my Black bisexual woman identity, I have felt restricted within it. Since coming to Paganism I have noticed that my Blackness, when seen at all, is treated as a credit to the diversity of the community rather than a set of lived experiences worthy of communal and spiritual attention. In my attempt to navigate those boundaries, I work diligently to share my experiences as a Black bisexual woman with my Pagan friends and acquaintances. I am committed to giving voice to my experiences – the good and the bad – as a person with intersecting marginalized identities within the Pagan community. For me, overcoming the over-culture has meant recognizing it and daring to defy it in every circle I cast and in every relationship I cultivated across those problematic boundaries.

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It is important to consider the effects of a culture that becomes too rigid and unable to be flexible with the ebb and flow of community. Whether or not modern Paganism or Polytheism has grown in that direction is not mine to decide. It is an evolving paradigm that each of us need to pick apart for ourselves in order to decipher what kind of community we are creating, and what kind of community we want. Any facet of society that does not acknowledge the grey areas, the role of the challenger, the beauty of difference, or the need to acknowledge the diversity of humanity leaves little room for the creativity that comes from the fringes. There are so many people operating within the margins of any given society, creating a narrative that will inevitably push against the status quo in ways that are culturally relevant, fresh and new, or can support a new way of embracing the art of engagement.

Some of the many gifts we have to share, or learn, come from perspectives, experiences, and variations that stretch us mentally and spiritually. Challenging the narrative pushes against an over-culture that often become monotonous. Once again, a reflection on the myriad of differences within our community opens door to discussions, insights, curiosity, and magic.

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This column was made possible by the generous support of the members of Come As You Are (CAYA) Coven, an eclectic, open, drop-in Pagan community in the San Francisco Bay Area.

 

The views and opinions expressed by our diverse panel of columnists and guest writers represent the many diverging perspectives held within the global Pagan, Heathen and polytheist communities, but do not necessarily reflect the views of The Wild Hunt Inc. or its management.

The Kremlin has brought in a raft of laws on religion that Russian Pagans fear could impact their community. The legislation, which came into force July 20, was rushed through parliament under the banner of combating religious extremism.

According to Russian Pagan and activist Gwiddon, the move is “a package of changes to deal with several different laws which are anti-terrorism measures.” He added: “It increases penalties for terrorist action, it puts responsibility on friends and family to report terrorist action, otherwise there is a criminal sentence.”

The laws include making social media and mobile phone companies store all communications for six months, and a summary of each communication for three years. As this is the first move of its kind, it is unknown whether or not it is actually possible to store such a massive amount of data.

The legislation also requires religious groups to register with the Ministry of Justice and to inform the government of the nature of their group, their leaders and members, including civil names and addresses, and where rituals are performed. In addition, groups need to declare in writing that they will uphold Russian values, which includes agreeing with the military draft, upholding the law, and supporting family values. Of the latter, Gwiddon stated, “You have to write that one down, or else you will get problems.”

Vladimir Putin with Russian religious leaders [Photo Credit: Presidential Press and Information Office / Wikimedia]

Vladimir Putin with Russian religious leaders [Photo Credit: Presidential Press and Information Office / Wikimedia]

A failure to comply is regarded as an “administrative injustice” and can result in a nominal fine – approximately 320 roubles. “It’s a small thing, but it’s a precedent,” noted Gwiddon.

For pagans, the main impact comes in the form of what is being defined as “missionary activity.” This makes expressing religious or spiritual thought to a non-member of your group an administrative injustice. It can also cover online activity and violations carry a fine of 50,000 roubles.

Gwiddon said, “Over the past 10 years there have been increasing ties between the State and the Church, the Russian Orthodox Church in particular. Even though our constitution is completely secular, we’ve seen an erosion of that concept in the past few years.”

Russian Orthodox is the official religion, and the Church has enjoyed a boom in governmental support over the past decade. Gwiddon explained, “The Church has become the ideological ministry, the ministry of thought so to speak. They promote governmental agendas and they criticise what the government wants them too.”

He went on to say, “The government uses the Church as the glue to bind society together. This came about intentionally as the government tried to find out what it means to be Russian now, what is our national identity now. They arrived at this idea, as we had so many years of Communism and before that monarchy and empire, and, as all that has gone, they think, ‘We have nothing left but the Church’. About 65 per cent of the people belong to it, not an overwhelming majority but it’s still many.”

According to Gwiddon, the new laws were established to combat all forms of religious extremism, such as radical Islamic groups and also groups like the Church of Scientology and the Hare Krishna movement.

He said: “They are trying to fight terrorism that is influenced by militant religious rhetoric. The law is there to prevent fanaticism in young people. They also want to fight cults and sects which they believe are damaging and destroying people’s lives, by giving away their money, being mind- controlled by these foreign and unusual cults.

“This change is not just to fight terrorism, but to protect citizens from dangerous cults. The government views such groups, such as the Hare Krishnas, with suspicion and are concerned.”

In fact, the first person to be prosecuted under the new legislation was a supporter of the Hare Krishna movement. Moscow was keen to demonstrate this new law in action and, on July 27,  a man from southern Russia was prosecuted for handing out leaflets about the Hare Krishna group that he supports. Someone filed a complaint to the police.

It was later shown that the man was not an official member of this group, but only supported it. However, expressing such thoughts publicly, is considered proselytizing, which is forbidden.

Gwiddon said, “That’s what happens in Russia, a new law comes in and they try it out with show trials to indicate who is being punished and what for.”

The part of the law pertaining to “missionary activity” is what is so concerning for most Russian Pagans. The new laws are vague and open-ended, leaving them wide open for a variety of interpretations – especially as they also cover online activity. Gwiddon explained, “If you speak to your friend on a train, say, about a religious topic and someone overhears you, according to the new law that is an administrative violation and you can be fined 50,000 roubles. You won’t go to jail for it, but it’s a hefty fine, given that the average Russian wage is 30,250 roubles a month.”

Sharing images of deities over Facebook, for example, could also be regarded as proselyting. And, it is unknown as of yet if this law will be applied retroactively to social media.

This crackdown extends to private homes as well as public arenas and venues. Missionary activity has to be confined to a temple or a church, or lands belonging to them and are legally registered, or to cemeteries, morgues and other such sites where religious activities may occur.  This is to prevent door-to-door proselytising, as performed by groups including the Mormons and Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Any sort of worship in public places is banned. This has obvious implications for public rituals, even solo affairs, as any such activity is now subject to the same 50,000 rouble fine. It is not even possible to hold group rituals in your own home, as it is not a designated place for religious worship. Under Russian law, you can own a piece of property personally but you cannot transform into a church or religious building unless you transfer it out of the realm of private dwelling and into the realm of religious dwelling.

The irony is that, although the Kremlin is keen to strengthen the position of the Russian Orthodox Church, few Russians actively practice the faith. Gwiddon said: “In our last National Census in 2011, only 65 per cent of Russians regarded themselves as Russian Orthodox, only 5 per cent of those attend Church services regularly and only 4 per cent have read the Bible. We are not a religious people, we are like Spain – where everyone is Catholic but no one goes to mass.”

The Russian Orthodox Church seems perturbed by the rise of Paganism among the young, echoing a trend across the Slavic nations. “These younger and more energetic group of people are not prepared to conform to an ideology which is about being meek and turning the other cheek,” explained Gwiddon. “They are attracted to Paganism partly because it is more fun. The young men in particular want something more manly and many are attracted to the old Slavic gods or Asatru, where the hero thing is going.”

Romuvan ceremony [Photo Credit: Mantas LT / Wikimedia]

Baltic Romuvan ceremony [Photo Credit: Mantas LT / Wikimedia]

Gwiddon points to neighbouring Lithuania as an example of Paganism being more readily accepted by the authorities. He said, “Lithuania has Romuva – it is a reconstruction of their old faith. But some say it is a continuation. The Romuva are supported by the Lithuanian government. Instead of going to the Catholic church exclusively, they have looked at different options of what it means to be Lithuanian today and they picked up Paganism as one part of the spectrum.

“They have said, ‘This is a flavour of what it means to be Lithuanian’. They use taxpayer money to support them and help build temples in some way at least, even though the majority of Lithuanians are Catholic. In Russia, they have gone for the majority and the rhetoric is that Pagans are the bad sheep and we are lost and can still come back to the flock.”

Gwiddon added, “At the moment the law is very vague and open to interpretation. It is impossible to know how it will be implemented yet.”

TWH –The Satanic Temple (TST) is once again in the news. This time they are working to establish After School Satan Clubs in schools that already have student groups which are organized by Christian ministries. TST’s mission is largely considered a push  to more thoroughly separate the functions of church and state. However, the efforts of this group has implications for members of minority religions, including Pagans, Heathens and associated traditions. To learn more about the religious clubs in the school systems, The Wild Hunt spoke with Pagans who are also teachers to find out about how religion is approached in their schools.

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Ryan Denison currently teaches high school students in Georgia and has always taught at large, suburban schools. While there has never been any faith-based clubs in any of the locations in which he has worked, Denison was also once a coach and is quite familiar with the Fellowship of Christian Athletes, which is widespread in the South.

Those of Denison’s students who are aware of his religion — he identifies as “Celtic/Norse Pagan/Heathen,” and is a member of both the Troth and ADF — didn’t find out until after they graduated. “I do wear my Mjolnir and raven pendant, and occasionally I’ll wear my torc,” he said. “But in 17 years I’ve maybe had like two kids ask about it.”

Denison has been public about his faith for the last year, but still considers it inappropriate to bring it into the classroom. “I’m a U.S. history teacher, so I strive to be neutral religiously and politically in class,” he explained.

He is a strong believer in separating church from state, but at the same time, he recognizes that children have the need to learn about alternatives. “I think there should be multiple outlets for our kids to explore, but I’m not an authoritarian parent. Our overculture still has that Puritan-esque authoritarian parent style, although it is fading.”

The notion of someone establishing a Pagan student club would not be well-received in his district, Denison believes. “The mere mention that a mosque may be built here has thrown the community into an Islamophobia frenzy,” he added.

“There would have to be a lot of relationship-building and communication before a club like that could be proposed, especially in the current psychological climate our country is in.”

Rahne, a secondary school teacher in the state of New York, also can’t imagine there ever being a Pagan club at her school. “I absolutely have had Pagan students,” she said, “but a club needs an advisor. I don’t think many teachers would want to put their job at risk that way.”

While tenure does protect the jobs of many teachers, administrators can take steps to make life uncomfortable, such as transferring to a different school or denying a teacher their own classroom.

Cat Chapin-Bishop has seen a Pagan club in her western Massachusetts school. It was called Earth’s Religions Alliance, but it only lasted for a couple of years until the interested students graduated. There was a bible study group at the same time, and that club continues to this day. The difference, she feels, is that the Pagan students “played by the rules,” while the Evangelical Christians had more help than they should have had.

“All religious clubs have to have the same access as any other, but there are also limitations,” Chapin-Bishop explained. “They need to be student-run. Teachers cannot be involved in worship or religious activity.” The adviser to the Earth’s Religions Alliance “provided space and supervision, but could not participate.” On the other hand, “The Bible study has had active participation from staff at the school, and brought in outside preachers: it is not student-led. It’s associated with one denomination, and really run by that church.”

[Public Domain]

[Public Domain]

While Denison has “heard horror stories” about school administrators using their authority to bring in religious influences, he finds that tolerance is the watch word in his own district.

Such a story of religious inclusion was witnessed firsthand by Rahne in her district. A fellow teacher at her urban school had suggested that bringing in members of the local clergy might be helpful in changing student behavior for the better. “All of a sudden, dozens of clergy were in the school,” she recalled. They were dressed in vestments or robes, walked the halls, dropped in unannounced to classes, and sat in the cafeteria.

“I had kids who expressed that they didn’t feel comforted, that they were more intimidated by these clergy than they were by police,” explained Rahne. While local papers heralded the idea, representatives of the New York Civil Liberties Union sent a letter expressing how problematic that practice could be.

Chapin-Bishop said she felt “irked” when she realized that Bible study group advisers weren’t playing by the rules. However, at the same, she recognized that the members were largely already attending the Evangelical church that supported the club.

Still, she thinks that active involvement by adults would result in a vibrant Pagan club of some kind. Her district is where the Pagan supply company AzureGreen is located, and she’s aware she has Pagan students who obtain books from that company or whose parents work there. “I hear them talk, I see them wearing pentacles, and I know it from their writing,” she said, although she also won’t intrude her own religion into the classroom.

As in Chapin-Bishop’s experience, the schools in which Rahne has taught have had a Christian group associated with a local church, in this case a Baptist one. “There are fliers all over the place with crosses on them, and I sometimes wonder what the reaction would be if I did some with pentagrams?” As with the other teachers interviewed, Rahne does not mention her beliefs in class, and if asked she “tells them it’s not appropriate for me to share my religion or politics with them.”

Denison thinks that fostering a climate in which young people can explore aspects of identity is central to being an educator. “My goal is to create critically thinking self-responsible adults. That would be hard to do if questions were met with an authoritarian ‘no,'” he said.

“If kept within bounds of legality, they’re are not a bad idea,” Chapin-Bishop said of religious clubs. “Even with the outside advisers, kids who are already interested tend to join the Bible club,” she observed, suggesting that it’s not a platform for proselytizing. “Earth’s Religions Alliance ran their own study group. It’s important to have mutual support.”

While Chapin-Bishop supports the idea of equal access to religion in principle, Rahne is cautious that it could become a competition of a sort.  There are some parents who she’s observed try “to out-religion each other” through open expressions of faith, such as bringing the family to lengthy Sunday services. People she’s encountered appear to consider Islam only barely a religion, she added, and anything not Abrahamic is considered mythical at best, or entirely extinct.

That experience is in contrast to what Chapin-Bishop observed when there was a Pagan club in her school. What she described as a “postering war” between members of two religious clubs included fliers that were “mildly disrespectful” of Pagans. The principal eventually responded by requiring all posters receive her approval before being displayed.

All told, Pagan teachers feel that they can only be supportive of Pagan clubs in the most hands-off way, making it difficult to help foster the supportive environment that they believe all students, including Pagans, should have available in their schools.

WILLIAMSON COUNTY, Tenn. — Druid Christy Coleman didn’t win a seat on school board, but she says she’s learned valuable lessons that she’ll use in for the next election. Coleman ran for the District 3 seat in Williamson county, TN. The District 3 race featured candidates; Christy Coleman, Kimberly Little, and Eliot Mitchell. Mitchell was elected to the seat with 477 votes, Little received 332, and Coleman came in with 236 votes.

[Courtesy Photo]

[Courtesy Photo]

In an interview, Coleman told The Wild Hunt that, although her religion was brought up during the race, she doesn’t attribute her loss to religious bigotry. She said that Eliot Mitchell had the advantage of established political ties, and this advantage was one she wasn’t able to overcome.

“There is such a thing as a good ole boy politicians club,” Colemand explained. “And it accommodates the luxury of not having to work as hard or being able to have people do your work for you. By hard work I mean personally knocking on 4000 doors like I did. Working 40-60 hours a week on your campaign on top of your day job.

“I was averaging 4-5 hours of sleep a night and I think my child forgot what my face looked like. And I guess one of my opponents, who also lost the election, probably knocked on as many doors because I would see her everywhere. I’m not judging the club. I hope one day to be in it. And most who are already club members got there by busting their tails at some point in the past. But running against someone in that club is a very big undertaking.”

In a blog post titled “My reflections on running for office,” Coleman wrote candidly about the challenges she faced as a Pagan running for office.

She said that running a campaign is more difficult than she thought. “Everyone said that running for office would be physically, mentally, and emotionally draining. They were right about the physical exhaustion. I wasn’t sure I would make it to the election in August at times.”

Coleman also noted how expensive it is to run for office. She said that you should plan on spending five to seven thousand out of your own pocket for a local, non-partisan election.

“It did open my eyes as to why a lot of politicians gladly accept PAC money,” said Coleman.

In addition to dealing with the expected hate mail and political tricks faced by almost every candidate running for political office, Pagans and Heathen candidates also have the added challenge of how to disclose information about their religion. How much should they say? When should they say it? And, what to do once your opponent tries to use it against you?

“I was accused of not being transparent about that during the campaign but the fact is, if people asked if I was a Christian I said no, ” said Colemen. “It was even briefly mentioned in my bio on my website and Facebook page. I say briefly because my religion has zero to do with public education and the decisions I would make.”

Coleman added that she didn’t want her campaign to focus on religion, unlike Ms. Little, whom reportedly made bringing God back into school a cornerstone of her campaign. Instead, Coleman focused on upcoming budget shortfalls, standardized testing, and rezoning.

Yet religion played a role in her campaign in positive ways. Coleman believes in divine intervention, and said that it assisted her many times during the election.

“From the kindness I meet in the unlikeliest person my first day canvassing after receiving the most aggressive physical threat by man supporting another candidate. There are good people out there and they may be your opposite. I’m not saying he’s good for voting for me, I’m saying he’s good for showing kindness to someone he shouldn’t, by all things on the surface, get along with.

“To the random synchronicity throughout the campaign putting me in the right spot at the right time in front of the right people. These meetings may not have panned out for me in the short term, but it helped me build a solid reputation for the next time.”

Coleman said that there will be a next time, “Whatever you do, make up your mind if you will run again before Election Day. You are either all in or you are all out. I will see you in 2020.”

MargarianCALGARY, Alb. — Members of Pagan and Wiccan communities across Canada were saddened to hear of the passing of elder Margarian Bridger (1957-2016). Born in the prairie city of Regina, Saskatchewan February 7, 1957, Margarian was raised in Toronto where she attended the University of Toronto, Victoria College. She graduated in 1979 with a Bachelor of Science in Geology.

In 1991, Margarian began the study of Witchcraft with the Calgary-based Covenant of Gaia Church of Alberta (COGCOA). A year later she was initiated into the Black Ring lineage of Branwen Stonecipher. She was elevated to the third degree seven years later, and went on to co-found the Evergreen Tradition, a blend of traditional and progressive Wicca, along with her husband, Stephen Hergest.

In their travels across Canada, Margarian and Stephen visited with other Pagan folk, forming connections, leading rituals and teaching workshops in ritual leadership in Calgary, Red Deer, Winnipeg Toronto ad Ottawa. Margarian served on the board of COGCOA from the 1990s through to the early 2000s, and also on the Calgary inter-aith Community Action Association board in the early 2000s.

She first became sick in 2008, and was then diagnosed with kidney failure in 2011. After that point, she lived in a nursing home, where she was able to receive regular dialysis and specialized care. Then, on Aug. 6, she died suddenly from heart failure.

Margarian loved to sing, read and write science fiction, and was talented in a number of handicrafts. She will be missed by her many loving family members and many friends around the country. What is remembered, lives.

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Covenant of the GoddessSAN JOSE, Calif. — Covenant of the Goddess held its annual business meeting this past weekend, during which it elected the incoming 2016-2017 board. New officers include Oberon, Tabitha Pousson, Manny Tejeda-Moreno, and Morgana Raventree. Greg Harder, Zenah Smith, and Stachia Ravensdottir will remain on the board in varying capacities, along with Jack Prewett as First Officer.

It was also announced that next year’s Merry Meet and Grand Council will be held in Southern California, and the 2018 meeting will be held in Florida. The specific locations have not yet been decided.

Along with discussing the operations of the 41-year-old Witch and Wiccan organization, attending members also announced the CoG Award of Honor recipients. This award, established in 2014, is given annually at the meeting and recognizes “outstanding service to the greater Pagan and Heathen communities in areas such as religious rights, international peace, environmental protection, interfaith leadership and education, the creation of lasting institutions, and the promotion of social justice and civil rights.” This year’s recipients included Rachel Watcher, Greg Harder, Starhawk, Zenah Smith, Fritz Jung, Wren Walker, Wild Hunt founder Jason Pitzl and current managing editor Heather Greene.

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13932872_1216133978407555_191847176209308355_nTWH — The Warrior’s Call: Pagans United Against Fracking has announced its fifth worldwide anti-fracking event titled “Voices on the Wind.” This new international action is scheduled for Oct. 15, 2016 and includes a “blessing and healing” ritual for the Earth. Organizers write, “We have heard the Voices on the Wind…from across the world, we have heard the people crying for the hurt done to their sacred Land by fracking, and we have heard their voices raised in resistance. Now we call on you to respond.”

Fracking has generated much press over the past few years, generating vocal protests from many diverse communities, which include Pagans, Heathen and polytheists organizations and individuals. As we reported in the past, the UK-based Warrior’s Call was born in 2013 after a group of Pagans staged a local ritual at Glastonbury Tor. Their attempt to raise awareness about fracking went global and, in retrospect, organizers said, “We felt it a shame to let the energy go to waste and so consolidated ourselves into a pagan anti-fracking pressure group; thus was the Warrior’s Call born.”

As with past actions, the upcoming “Voices on the Wind” ritual is not scheduled for a specific time. However, there are some suggested actions and workings. “Go to a windy place and create ritual space according to your own tradition,” organizers explain. “Make a sound of blessing and healing with your own voice or the voice of your musical instrument. Let the wind carry it across the Land and the World.” More details can be found on The Warrior’s Call website.

In Other News

  • The Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies has released its most recent issue (vol. 18. No. 1). The new edition includes three articles by Christopher Josiffe, Ethan Doyle White, and Gwendolyn Reece, and seven book reviews by various writers. The three full articles are accessible by subscription only. However, the reviews are open access and can be read online or downloaded in PDF form. “The Pomegranate is the first international, peer-reviewed journal of Pagan studies. It provides a forum for papers, essays and symposia on both ancient and contemporary Pagan religious practices.”
  • Mystic South 2017 has opened its registration and application processes. The new conference is now preparing for its inaugural year, to be hosted in Atlanta, Georgia at the Crowne Plaza Ravnia July 21-23, 2017. Mystic South organizers are planning a three-day indoor conference with the theme: “theory, practice, play.” There will be vendors, entertainment, workshops, and presentations. Additionally, the organizers are hosting PAPERS (a Polytheist and Pagan Educational Research Symposium), which focuses specifically on academic studies. They are currently accepting proposals for this track along with non-academic presentations.

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  • The Occidental Temple of the Wise Lord, “a Western Zoroastrian organization made up of Zoroastrian converts to the Mazdan Way,” has just launched its website. The new site details the group’s mission, practice, history, and writings for all those interested in its work.
  • For New Hampshire residences, a new metaphysical store has opened in Nashua.The store, called Tangled Roots Herbal, is the seven-year dream of owner Sheryl Burns, who has been a longtime student of herbology. This dream became reality when the store opened this summer on West Pearl Street. Burns sells both metaphysical products and services, including drumming circles, healing sessions, and a variety of workshops.
  • Dragon Con, which is now celebrating its 30th anniversary, will be opening its doors Sept. 2, 2016. Over that weekend, three familiar Pagan performers will be playing at the world’s largest pop culture convention. Emerald Rose, who has been included on the DragonCon Walk of Fame, will be reportedly be performing its last concert as a group. Tuatha Dea and S.J. Tucker will also be performing live on one of the many stages throughout Dragon Con’s sprawling venue. The official schedule of performance times has not yet been announced.

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UNITED STATES — As November looms ever closer, Americans continue to grapple with the many issues and the rheteroic surrounding the 2016 Presidential election process. The national conventions for the Democratic and Republican parties are now over, and candidates officially declared. At the same time, the smaller Libertarian and Green parties have also declared candidates. To date, this race has been one of the most contentious, and only promises to continue in that vein.

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One of the most critical issues for Pagans, Heathens and polytheists is a candidate’s position on religious freedom and the protections granted by the First Amendment. The Pew Research Center recently published an  overview of “Religion and the 2016 Election.” Where do various religious communities fall within candidate support? According to the June polls, GOP candidate Donald Trump finds his biggest support among white Evangelical Protestants. “Roughly eight-in-ten white evangelical Protestant voters (78%) say they would support Trump if the election were held today.” That percentage is up slightly from 2012.

On the other hand, black Protestants strongly favor Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton. “Nine-in-ten black Protestants who are registered to vote say they would vote for Clinton if the election were held today (89%), as would two-thirds of those with no religious affiliation.” The unaffiliated is defined as the ‘nones,’ or those not connected with any religion.

Pew’s report did not record any interest in third-party candidates, nor did it analyze the responses from voters within non-Christian religious populations. Pew states, “There were not enough interviews with Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and members of other religious groups to analyze their responses separately.” That includes Pagans, Heathens and polytheists, unless some were labeled “unaffiliated.” Regardless, the data aren’t there.

Another Pew study published in January discusses the value of candidate’s religion within the campaign process. Does a candidate’s religious affiliation matter to voters? According to that study, 51 percent of Americans are less likely to support a candidate who “does not believe in God.” That statement could be read as meaning simply an atheist candidate, which is how Pew analyzes the data, or it could also be read as a candidate practicing a minority religion, who does not believe in the Abrahamic god. This nuance was not addressed.

At the same time, Pew does note that the percentage of people concerned about a candidate’s “faith” has been dropping. That figure is down twelve points from 63 percent in 2007. Similarly, the number of Americans who are “less likely” to support a Muslim candidate is also down from 46 percent in 2007 to 43 percent in 2016.

And, this trend follows with other major religions as well. The candidate’s own religious affiliation is becoming increasingly irrelevant in the election process, paralleling the growth of the ‘nones,’ an increase in minority religious practices, and other similar trends that suggest a movement toward greater secularization.

While the candidates’ religious beliefs are of decreasing interest, their position or their party’s position on religious freedom is still a vital part of the campaign process. Religious freedom was and is still one of the backbones of the American system.

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[Courtesy Pixabay]

So where do the parties stand? Here is a look at the official 2016 party platforms with statements by the candidate in no particular order.

2016 Democratic Party Platform

“Democrats will always fight to end discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, language, religion, gender, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.” (p. 22)

The Democratic platform predominantly addresses religious freedom in general terms. It is included in discussions of general civil liberties, diversity in the military, LGBT rights, and the condemnation of profiling and hate speech. Democrats state, “It is unacceptable to target, defame, or exclude anyone because of their race, ethnicity, national origin, language, religion, gender, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability. ” (p. 18)

The platform talks more specifically about religion in three places. First, when discussing marriage equality, Democrats say, “[We] applaud last year’s decision by the Supreme Court that recognized that LGBT people—like other Americans—have the right to marry the person they love.” They go on to indirectly reference the run of Religious Freedom Restoration acts (RFRAs) in the following statement: “We will do everything we can to protect religious minorities and the fundamental right of freedom of religion.” (p. 47)

U.S._Democratic_Party_logo_(transparent).svgThe Democrats also mention religion in a section titled “Honoring Indigenous Tribal Nations.” They pledge to “empower tribes to maintain and pass on traditional religious beliefs,” among other things. And, they offer to “acknowledge the past injustices” that have led to the destruction of such beliefs. (p. 22-23)

Under the title “Religious Minorities,” Democrats say, “We are horrified by ISIS’ genocide and sexual enslavement of Christians and Yezidis and crimes against humanity against Muslims and others in the Middle East. We will do everything we can to protect religious minorities and the fundamental right of freedom of religion.” (p. 51)

This idea is supported by a comment in Clinton’s own book, Hard Choices, published in 2014:

Religious freedom is a human right unto itself, and it is wrapped up with other rights, including the right of people to think what they want, say what they think, associate with others, and assemble peacefully without the state looking over their shoulders. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights makes clear that each of us is born free to practice any religion. (p.74)

Clinton herself is reportedly a Christian and, at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, said, “[It] is our duty, to build that bright future, and to teach our children that in America there is no chasm too deep, no barrier too great–and no ceiling too high–for all who work hard, never back down, always keep going, have faith in God, in our country, and in each other.”

More recently, in an Op-Ed for the Deseret News, owned by the Church of Latter Day Saints (LDS) and with a Mormon readership, Clinton wrote, “As Americans, we hold fast to the belief that everyone has the right to worship however he or she sees fit. I’ve been fighting to defend religious freedom for years.” She ends noting the “blessings” of Constitution and promise to uphold the President’s “sacred responsibility” to protect it.

2016 Republican Party Platform

“[Republicans] oppose discrimination based on race, sex, religion, creed, disability, or national origin and support statutes to end such discrimination.” (p. 9)

The Republican Party tackles religious freedom head-on. In a section titled “The First Amendment: Religious Liberty,” the party begins by saying, “The Bill of Rights lists religious liberty, with its rights of conscience, as the first freedom to be protected. Religious freedom in the Bill of Rights protects the right of the people to practice their faith in their everyday lives.” (p. 11)

From there, the Republicans continue on to discuss the “ongoing attempts to compel individuals, businesses, and institutions of faith to transgress their beliefs” and the “misguided effort to undermine religion and drive it from the public square.” More specifically, the urge the repeal of the Johnson Amendment, which removes the 1954 IRS code restricting tax-exempt entities, including religious bodies, from engaging in partisan politics. (p. 18)

Republicanlogo.svgThe Republican Party platform goes on to endorse the proposed First Amendment Defense Act (HR 2802) that addresses “discriminatory actions against a person on the basis that such person believes or acts in accordance with a religious belief or moral conviction.” This includes the repeal of the IRS tax code as well as further protections for faith-based institutions. The Republicans explain, “[the act would] bar government discrimination against individuals and businesses for acting on the belief that marriage is the union of one man and one woman.” As such, the platform also “condemns the Supreme Court’s ruling in United States v. Windsor.” (p. 11)

Religious rhetoric can be found in other sections of the platform, similar to the party’s position on marriage equality. However, the Republicans do not directly address religious freedom again until their discussion on foreign policy with regard to Israel and Syrian refugees. In both cases, they acknowledge their support of governments and systems that “protect the rights of all minorities and religions.” (p. 47) The platform reads:

The United States must stand with leaders, like President Sisi of Egypt who has bravely protected the rights of Coptic Christians in Egypt, and call on other leaders across the region to ensure that all religious minorities, whether Yazidi, Bahai, Orthodox, Catholic or Protestant Christians, are free to practice their religion without fear of persecution. (p. 59)

Where does Trump stand specifically? He has reportedly spoken out briefly on the repeal of the Johnson Amendment. According to Time, Republican platform committee member Tony Perkins said, “[Repealing the Johnson Amendment] is a priority in the platform, and from the Trump folks, it is a priority of the campaign, and will be a priority of the administration.”

Trump’s running mate, Indiana governor Mike Pence, is a supporter of the RFRA movement, having signed one of the most publicized of such laws. Trump wrote in his book Crippled America, published in 2015, “What offends me is the way our religious beliefs are being treated in public. There are restrictions on what you can say and what you can’t say, as well as what you can put up in a public area. The belief in the lessons of the Bible has had a lot to do with our growth and success. That’s our tradition, and for more than 200 years it has worked very well.” (p. 132)

Trump’s foreign policy has been a hot topic after he suggesting banning Muslims from entering the country. However, he has since explained that his statement is about “territory” and not religion. As noted in the New York Times, Pence recently supported this idea when he stated that the campaign suggested an immigration ban on all people coming from certain Daesh-controlled territories.

In July, Trump himself was quoted in The Washington Post, saying “We have a religious, you know, everybody wants to be protected. And that’s great. And that’s the wonderful part of our Constitution. […] I live with our Constitution. I love our Constitution. I cherish our Constitution.”

2016 Libertarian Party Platform

“As Libertarians, we seek a world of liberty; a world in which all individuals are sovereign over their own lives and no one is forced to sacrifice his or her values for the benefit of others.” (p. 1)

The Libertarian Party published its 2016 platform in May after holding its own national convention. The platform is far shorter than either of the two major parties. Similar to the Democrats, the Libertarians did not address, condone, or endorse any specific religious freedom actions or proposed legislation. They simply expressed their general position with regard to religious liberty. In section “1.2 Expression and Communication”, the party writes:

Libertarian_Party_US_LogoWe support full freedom of expression and oppose government censorship, regulation or control of communications media and technology. We favor the freedom to engage in or abstain from any religious activities that do not violate the rights of others. We oppose government actions which either aid or attack any religion. (p. 2)

That is the only section that directly mentions religion or religious freedom; however, it is implied within other held positions affecting “personal liberty,” such as abortion, parenting and marriage equality. In all cases, Libertarians stress that government should “stay out of the matter.” (p. 3)

Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson supports the platform in full. However, in his book Seven Principles of Good Government, he did note a nuance with regard to child care. He supports the use of government vouchers for child care, if and when it is within a religious facility. (p. 96-97)

More recently, The Deseret News published an op-ed with Johnson, who addresses religious freedom to the news agency’s Mormon readership. He wrote, “Given the divisiveness and pain that have accompanied several state religious freedom laws, I approach attempts at legislating religious exceptions to anti-discrimination laws with great sensitivity and care.”

Johnson goes to say that he supports religious belief but fears “politically-driven legislation which claims to promote religious liberty” and is used to for discrimination. Here he is referring to the RFRAs.

In his conclusion, Johnson writes, “America is big enough to accommodate differences of opinion and practice on religious and social beliefs. As a nation and as a society, we must reject discrimination, forcefully and without asterisks. Most importantly, as president I will zealously defend the Constitution of the United States and all of its amendments.”

2016 Green Party Platform

“As a matter of right, all persons must have the opportunity to benefit equally from the resources afforded us by society and the environment. We must consciously confront in ourselves, our organizations, and society at large, any discrimination by race, class, gender, sexual orientation, age, nationality, religion, or physical or mental ability that denies fair treatment and equal justice under the law.” (10 Key Values)

logo-of-the-gpusa_square_weblogo_0The Green Party addresses religious freedom throughout its platform. In its Ten Key Values, the party condemnes the “systematic degradation or elimination of our constitutional protections,” and as part of that, they support the “U.S. constitutional guarantees for freedom of religion, separation of church and state, and that there shall be no religious test for public office.” The Greens go on to say that they look to eliminate laws that “discriminate against particular religious beliefs or non-belief,” as well as eliminating the use of public funds to support “faith-based initiatives.” (Democracy)

In the Social Jusice section of the document, the Greens restate their support of the Bill of Rights, and then go on to offer a call to action with regard to a number of common situations in which religious freedom enters the debate. These situations include “curricula in government-funded public schools,” the Pledge of Allegiance, displays in public spaces, courtroom oaths, Boy Scouts, abortion, tax exemptions and more.

The Greens say, “We affirm the right of each individual to the exercise of conscience and religion, while maintaining the constitutionally mandated separation of government and religion. We believe that federal, state, and local governments must remain neutral regarding religion.”

On her own site, Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein reiterated key components of the party platform. She only mentions religion specifically once, and that is with regard to foreign policy. She writes, “U.S. policy regarding Israel and Palestine must be revised to prioritize international law, peace and human rights for all people, no matter their religion or nationality.”

In a 2016 interview with OntheIssues, Stein spoke about religious freedom within the U.S. She said “We don’t live in a religious country–in the sense of having no national religion, and instead the separation of church & state–so faith should not be a public issue. […] Failing to separate church and state is a bad prescription.” Stein added that she brings a “perspective of religious neutrality,” which she believes is needed in this diverse “modern world.”

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While statistics appear to tell a story of a decreased interest or concern with religion’s place in politics, the decline is still very small. Whether religion is dealt with in specific terms, as the Republican Party did, or in more general ways like the Libertarians, it will continue to play a significant role in the American political machine. Religious conviction can be found underlying many major social issues, such as marriage equality and abortion rights, and at forefront of other debates, such as in public prayer and holiday displays. The U.S. may not be a religious country, but it is a country that continues to concern itself profoundly with the practice of religion, or lack thereof, in its many forms.

Editor’s Note: The Wild Hunt Inc is a non-profit news journal and does not take a position for or against any one party.